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M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank


The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is widely used by the United States Army and Marine Corps. These vehicles serve as the backbone of the United States ground forces in every major conflict. They are air transportable by C-17 and C-5 aircraft.

Contractor

Manufactured by: General Dynamics Land Systems

Tank Urban Survival Kit

The Tank Urban Survival Kit is an upgrade kit for the Abrams Main Battle Tank. This kit can be applied by the units in field conditions, to improve the vehicle’s protection, firepower, situational awareness and survivability in urban environment.

These upgrades include:
  • add-on explosive reactive armor, fitted to side skirts (provides protection against RPG rounds)
  • slat armor is added to the hull rear (also provides protection against RPG rounds)
  • 32 dischargers for 66-mm defensive grenades (loaded with a combination of smoke and anti-personnel grenades)
  • transparent shielding around the vehicle commander’s .50 Caliber machine gun
  • or a remotely controlled weapon station (M1A2 SEP tanks only)
  • shielded 7.62mm machine gun for the ammunition loader
  • thermal weapon sight for the ammunition loader (now he can locate targets and fire from his machine gun at night)
  • one more remotely controlled .50 Caliber machine gun over the main gun, fitted with a spotlight. This machine gun is referred as counter sniper and anti-material weapon, firing single shots or in full-auto mode. It is aimed using the main gun
  • 360 degree camera for the vehicle commander (improves situational awareness)
  • rear vision camera for the driver
  • an infantry phone, which allows nearby infantry to communicate with the tank commander and coordinate their actions in combat

It is worth noting that sometimes tanks are fitted with only some components of the TUSK kit. It is done depending on situation and mission requirements.

Timeline

1979 - XM1 Abrams, first prototype
1985 - Introduction of the M1A1
1996 - Introduction of the M1A2 (deliveries began in 1998)

M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank

The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tanks is the backbone of the armored forces of the United States Army and Marine Corps. Its purpose is to provide mobile firepower for armored formations of sufficient capability to successfully close with and destroy any opposing armored fighting vehicle in the world, while providing protection for its crew in any conceivable combat environment.
M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank Copyright © Lance Cpl. Donald T. Peterson, U.S. Marine Corps

Status

In active service

Crew

1 Driver
1 Commander
1 Gunner
1 Ammunition Loader

Weapon systems

Main gun
M256 120mm Smoothbore Cannon (42 rounds)
Coaxial mount
M240 Medium Machine Gun (10400 rounds total)
Commander's weapon
M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun (900 rounds)
Pintle mount
M240 Medium Machine Gun (10400 rounds total)
Countermeasures
2 x M250 Smoke Grenade Launcher (6 grenades each)

Characteristics

Dimensions
Length (gun forward): 9.83 meters 32.25 feet
Width: 3.66 meters 12 feet
Height: 2.44 meters 8 feet
Maximum trench crossing: 2.74 meters 9 feet
Ground clearance: 0.48 meters 19 inches
Vertical obstacle: 1.24 meters 4.8 feet
Weight
Weight: 61.33 metric tons 67.6 short tons
Features
Power plant: one Honeywell AGT-1500 gas turbine engine
Performance: 1 500 horsepower
Maximum speed: ~67 kilometers per hour 41.5 miles per hour
Cross country speed: ~48 kilometers per hour 30 miles per hour
Cruise range: ~439-480 kilometers (at 25 miles per hour) 273-298 miles (at 25 miles per hour)

M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tank

The M1A2 is the second major block improvement to the Abrams Tank System. It features significantly reduced ballistic vulnerability compared to the M1A1. It also includes the Intervehicular Information System (IVIS), Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer (CITV), a Position/Navigation System (POS/NAV), an Improved Commander's Weapon Station (ICWS) and integration of the vehicle electronics system through the use of a dual redundant data and utility bus architecture.
M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tank

Status

In active service

M1A2 System Enhancement Package

The M1A2 System Enhancement Package (SEP) builds on the digitized M1A2 platform.

SEPv1 upgrades include:
  • improved armor package of third generation steel-encased depleted uranium armor
  • new command and control system
  • second-generation FLIR thermal sights that include a Commander’s Independent Thermal Viewer (CITV)
  • Under Armor Auxiliary Power Unit (UAAPU): lets crews run key electronics without running the engine
  • Thermal Management System (TMS): air conditioning for crew & electronics
  • enhanced electronics, for example color maps and displays
  • improved networked communications
  • high-density computer memory and increased microprocessing speed
  • more user friendly "Soldier Machine Interface (SMI)"
  • open operating computing system that will make future upgrades and additions easier
SEPv2 upgrades include:
  • improved displays, sights, power systems
  • tank-infantry phone
  • CROWS-II top-mounted machine gun with advanced sights: the weapon can be fired from inside of the tank without exposing the crew to enemy fire
SEPv3:
  • upgrades in the area of survivability, maintainability, fuel efficiency, and network capabilities
  • new armor package with improved anti-IED capability

Crew

1 Driver
1 Commander
1 Gunner
1 Ammunition Loader

Weapon systems

Main gun
M256 120mm Smoothbore Cannon (42 rounds)
Coaxial mount
M240 Medium Machine Gun (10400 rounds total)
Commander's weapon
M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun (900 rounds)
Pintle mount
M240 Medium Machine Gun (10400 rounds total)
Countermeasures
2 x M250 Smoke Grenade Launcher (6 grenades each)

Characteristics

Dimensions
Length (gun forward): 9.83 meters 32.25 feet
Width: 3.66 meters 12 feet
Height: 2.37 meters 7.79 feet
Maximum trench crossing: 2.74 meters 9 feet
Ground clearance: 0.48 meters 19 inches
Vertical obstacle: 1.7 meters 3.5 feet
Weight
Curb weight: 63.9 metric tons 69.54 short tons
Features
Power plant: one Honeywell AGT-1500 gas turbine engine
Performance: 1 500 horsepower
Maximum speed: ~68 kilometers per hour 42 miles per hour
Cross country speed: ~48 kilometers per hour 30 miles per hour
Cruise range: ~426 kilometers 265 miles