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12.7×99mm Cartridge

The 12.7×99mm, often referred to as .50 caliber cartridges are NATO standard ammunition, used primarily in heavy machine guns and anti-materiel rifles in all branches of the U.S. military. The family of .50 caliber ammunition consists of ball, tracer, armor piercing, incendiary and dummy cartridges, among others.
12.7×99mm Cartridge

M8 Armor Piercing Incendiary

The M8 API is used by M2 machine gun and the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle. The cartridge combines the functions of the M2 armor piercing bullet and the incendiary bullet, and is used against flammable targets and light-armored or unarmored targets, concrete shelters, and similar bullet-resisting targets.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Cartridge length: 138.4 millimeters 5.45 inches
Weight
Cartridge weight: 114.3 grams 1 764 grains
Projectile weight: 40.34 grams 622.5 grains
Features
Chamber pressure: 4 148 kg/cm2 59 000 psi
Velocity: 887 meters per second 2 910 feet per second
Armor penetration (500 meters): 16 millimeters 0.63 inches
Armor penetration (1200 meters): 8 millimeters 0.32 inches
Miscellaneous
Propellant: WC 860
Incendiary composition: IM 11 (0.97 grams) (15 grains)

M17 Tracer

The M17 Tracer is used by M2 machine gun and the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle. The cartridge tracer is intended to permit visible observation of the bullets in-flight path or trajectory to the point of impact. It is identified by a brown bullet tip.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Cartridge length: 138.4 millimeters 5.45 inches
Weight
Cartridge weight: 112.23 grams 1 732 grains
Features
Chamber pressure: 3 796 kg/cm2 54 000 psi
Velocity: 872 meters per second 2 860 feet per second
Trace Range: 2 450 meters 2 679 yards
Miscellaneous
Propellant: IMR 5 010
Tracer: R256

M20 Armor Piercing Incendiary-Tracer

The M20 API-T is used by the M2 machine gun and the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle. It is a tracer cartridge, it's dim at near ranges, but increases to bright as it moves further from the gun. Its characteristics and usage is similar to that of the M8 API cartridge.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Cartridge length: 138.4 millimeters 5.45 inches
Weight
Cartridge weight: 111.32 grams 1 718 grains
Projectile weight: 40.11 grams 619 grains
Features
Chamber pressure: 3 867 kg/cm2 55 000 psi
Velocity: 887 meters per second 2 910 feet per second
Armor penetration (500 meters): 21 millimeters 0.83 inches
Armor penetration (1200 meters): 11 millimeters 0.43 inches
Trace range: 300 - 1 750 meters 328 - 1 914 yards
Miscellaneous
Propellant: IMR 5 010
Incendiary composition: IM 161 (1.74 grams) (27 grains)

M23 Incendiary

The M23 Incendiary is used by the M2 machine guns. The cartridge is used against flammable targets. It is capable of initiating combustion of flammable materials upon target impact at 175 yards (160 m). The cartridge is identified by a blue bullet tip with a light blue ring to the rear of the blue tip.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Cartridge length: 138.4 millimeters 5.45 inches
Weight
Cartridge weight: 102.45 grams 1 581 grains
Features
Chamber pressure: 4 077 kg/cm2 58 000 psi
Velocity: 1 036 meters per second 3 400 feet per second
Miscellaneous
Propellant: IMR 4 831
Incendiary composition: IM 28 (5.83 grams) (90 grains)

M33 Ball

The M33 Ball is used by the M2 machine gun and the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle. The cartridge is intended for use against personnel or unarmored targets.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Cartridge length: 138.4 millimeters 5.45 inches
Weight
Cartridge weight: 114.17 grams 1 762 grains
Projectile weight: 45.8 grams 706.7 grains
Features
Chamber pressure: 3 867 kg/cm2 55 000 psi
Velocity: 887 meters per second 2 910 feet per second
Armor penetration (500 meters): 8 millimeters 0.32 inches
Armor penetration (1200 meters): 4 millimeters 0.16 inches
Miscellaneous
Propellant: WC 860

M903 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator

Ther M903 SLAP cartridge is used by M2HB machine gun. It is used in combat against light armored targets and helicopters. The M903 offers the capability to defeat these targets at ranges two to three times that of previously available ammunition. The cartridge consists of a heavy metal (tungsten) penetrator that is sabot-launched at a much higher velocity than standard rounds.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Cartridge length: 138.4 millimeters 5.45 inches
Projectile diameter: 7.7 millimeters 0.3 inches
Weight
Cartridge weight: 94.99 grams 1 466 grains
Projectile weight: 23.0 - 23.33 grams 355 - 360 grains
Features
Chamber pressure: 3 867 kg/cm2 55 000 psi
Velocity: 1 219 meters per second 4 000 feet per second
Armor penetration (500 meters): 34 millimeters 1.34 inches
Armor penetration (1200 meters): 23 millimeters 0.91 inches
Miscellaneous
Propellant: WC 856

M962 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator-Tracer

The M962 SLAP-T is used by the M2HB machine gun against light armored vehicles and aircraft with the additional tracer feature. The cartridge consists of a tungsten alloy penetrator of the same mass as the M903 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Cartridge length: 138.4 millimeters 5.45 inches
Projectile diameter: 7.7 millimeters 0.3 inches
Weight
Cartridge weight: 94.99 grams 1 466 grains
Projectile weight: 22.67 - 23.33 grams 350 - 360 grains
Features
Chamber pressure: 3 867 kg/cm2 55 000 psi
Velocity: 1 219 meters per second 4 000 feet per second
Miscellaneous
Propellant: WC 856

MK 211 Armor Piercing Incendiary

The MK 211 is used by the M2 machine gun and the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle against light armored vehicles and aircraft. This cartridge provides improved penetration performance against enemy personnel and light armor vehicles.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Cartridge length: 138.4 millimeters 5.45 inches
Weight
Cartridge weight: 114.37 grams 1 765 grains
Projectile weight: 43.48 grams 671 grains
Features
Chamber pressure: 3 867 kg/cm2 55 000 psi
Velocity: 886 ± 9.1 meters per second 2 910 ± 30 feet per second
Miscellaneous
Propellant: WC 860, MR 5 010 or RA-NC-167
Explosive composition: Comp A-4 (0.84 grams) (13 grains)
Incendiary composition: #136 (0.85 grams) (13.1 grains)