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BGM-109 Tomahawk

The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is an all-weather, long range, subsonic cruise missile used for land attack warfare, launched from U. S. Navy surface ships and U.S. Navy and Royal Navy submarines. Tomahawk cruise missiles are designed to fly at extremely low altitudes at high subsonic speeds, and are piloted over an evasive route by several mission tailored guidance systems.
BGM-109 Tomahawk

Status

In active service

Contractors

Designer: General Dynamics
Manufacturer: Raytheon
Original developer of the Block IV TBIP upgrade: Hughes

Designation changes

In 1986, the designations were changed. Before that, different launch environment options were designated by suffix letters. After the change, the first letters indicate the launch environment, RGM being the surface ship-launched, while UGM being the submarine-launched version.

Old designation New designation
BGM-109A-1 RGM-109A
BGM-109A-2 UGM-109A
BGM-109B-1 RGM-109B
BGM-109B-2 UGM-109B
BGM-109C-1 RGM-109C
BGM-109C-2 UGM-109C
BGM-109D-1 RGM-109D
BGM-109D-2 UGM-109D

Timeline

January 1977 - JCMP (Joint Cruise Missile Project) program initiated

Block I TLAM-A

The B/UGM-109A is the initial, Block I version of the Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (also called TLAM-N), equipped with a thermonuclear warhead.

Status

Retired

Characteristics

Dimensions
Length (without booster): 5.56 meters 18.25 feet
Length (with booster): 6.25 meters 20.5 feet
Diameter: 53.3 centimeters 21 inches
Wingspan: 2.67 meters 8,75 feet
Weight
Weight (without booster): 1 180 kilograms 2 600 pounds
Weight (with booster): 1 450 kilograms 3 200 pounds
Features
Speed: Subsonic (880 kilometers per hour) (550 miles per hour)
Range: 1 350 nautical miles (2 500 kilometers) (1 554 miles)
Engine thrust: 2.7 kilonewtons 607 pounds
Booster thrust: 26.7 kilonewtons (for 12 seconds) 6 000 pounds (for 12 seconds)
Miscellaneous
Guidance system: INS, TERCOM
Propulsion: Williams F107-WR-400 turbofan engine
Booster: Atlantic Research MK 106 solid-propellant rocket
Warhead: W80 nuclear warhead
Yield: 5-200 kilotons

Timeline

March 1980 - First surface-ship launch (from DD-976 USS Merrill)
June 1980 - First submarine launch (from SSN-665 USS Guitarro)
March 1983 - Field date

Block I TASM

The B/UGM-109B is the initial, Block I version of the Tomahawk, equipped with a conventional warhead used against surface ships. It is called Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile (TASM).

Status

Retired

Characteristics

Dimensions
Length (without booster): 5.56 meters 18.25 feet
Length (with booster): 6.25 meters 20.5 feet
Diameter: 53.3 centimeters 21 inches
Wingspan: 2.67 meters 8,75 feet
Weight
Weight (without booster): 1 180 kilograms 2 600 pounds
Weight (with booster): 1 450 kilograms 3 200 pounds
Features
Warhead weight: 450 kilograms 1 000 pounds
Speed: Subsonic (880 kilometers per hour) (550 miles per hour)
Range: 250 nautical miles (463 kilometers) (288 miles)
Engine thrust: 2.7 kilonewtons 607 pounds
Booster thrust: 26.7 kilonewtons (for 12 seconds) 6 000 pounds (for 12 seconds)
Miscellaneous
Guidance system: INS, TERCOM
Propulsion: Williams F107-WR-400 turbofan engine
Booster: Atlantic Research MK 106 solid-propellant rocket
Warhead: WDU-25/B blast-fragmentation warhead

Block II TLAM-C

The Tomahawk Block II, designated R/UGM-109C, also called TLAM-C (Tomahawk Land-Attack Missile - Conventional) is a conventionally-armed (same WDU-25/B warhead as -109B TASM) missile for long-range strikes against high-value targets. It uses the same INS/TERCOM suite as the -109A TLAM-N for mid-course guidance. For higher accuracy in the terminal phase of the flight, it uses an AN/DXQ-1 DSMAC (Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation) system, because the conventional warhead requires higher precision to be effective. DSMAC is an electro-optical sensor system which takes images from the ground below the missile and compares these to reference images stored in the on-board computer.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Length (without booster): 5.56 meters 18.25 feet
Length (with booster): 6.25 meters 20.5 feet
Diameter: 53.3 centimeters 21 inches
Wingspan: 2.67 meters 8,75 feet
Weight
Weight (without booster): 1 315 kilograms 2 900 pounds
Weight (with booster): 1 588 kilograms 3 500 pounds
Warhead weight: 454 kilograms 1 000 pounds
Features
Speed: ~880 kilometers per hour ~550 miles per hour
Range: 675 nautical miles (1 250 kilometers) (777 miles)
Engine thrust: 2.7 kilonewtons 607 pounds
Booster thrust: 26.7 kilonewtons (for 12 seconds) 6 000 pounds (for 12 seconds)
Miscellaneous
Guidance system: INS, TERCOM, DSMAC, and GPS
Propulsion: Williams F107-WR-400 turbofan engine
Booster: Atlantic Research MK 106 solid-propellant rocket
Warhead: WDU-25/B blast-fragmentation warhead

Timeline

1986 - Entered service

Block IIB TLAM-D

The Tomahawk Block IIB is designated R/UGM-109D, also called TLAM-D (Tomahawk Land-Attack Missile - Dispenser). It is similar to the TLAM-C (also using the TAINS/DSMAC guidance package), but in place of the unitary WDU-25/B warhead, it uses a warhead section with 166 BLU-97/B CEB (Combined Effects Bomblet) submunitions. The BLU-97/Bs can be dispensed in partial packages to attack several targets in one mission.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Length (without booster): 5.56 meters 18.25 feet
Length (with booster): 6.25 meters 20.5 feet
Diameter: 53.3 centimeters 21 inches
Wingspan: 2.67 meters 8,75 feet
Weight
Weight (without booster): 1 220 kilograms 2 690 pounds
Weight (with booster): 1 490 kilograms 3 285 pounds
Features
Speed: ~880 kilometers per hour ~550 miles per hour
Range: 470 nautical miles (870 kilometers) (540 miles)
Engine thrust: 2.7 kilonewtons 607 pounds
Booster thrust: 26.7 kilonewtons (for 12 seconds) 6 000 pounds (for 12 seconds)
Miscellaneous
Guidance system: INS, TERCOM, DSMAC, and GPS
Propulsion: Williams International F107 cruise turbo-fan engine
Booster: Atlantic Research MK 106 solid-propellant rocket
Warhead: 166 BLU-97/B CEB (Combined Effects Bomblets)

Timeline

1988 - Entered service

Block III

Block III has a significantly upgraded guidance unit, incorporating a GPS receiver to assist the TAINS system, and the improved DSMAC 2A which uses a wider imagery range and more scenes for the final fix. The Block III missiles were also upgraded with an improved F107-WR-402 engine with higher thrust and lower fuel consumption. The RGM/UGM-109C Block III also uses an improved WDU-36/B warhead which is smaller (thereby increasing fuel space) and lighter than the WDU-25/B but offers the same effect. The new warhead significantly increases the range of the Block III TLAM-C missile.

Attack modes

The original TLAM-C Block II had only one mode of final approach, it always flew straight into the side of the target. Early in the development program, however, the BGM-109C software was upgraded to Block IIA. This allows pre-launch selection of two additional attack modes. The first of these is a pop-up/terminal-dive maneuver, and the second is known as PWD (Programmed Warhead Detonation). Using PWD, the WDU-25/B warhead is detonated while the missile is flying directly over the target, making it especially effective against targets behind a protective shielding like a revetment.

Characteristics

Dimensions
Length (without booster): 5.56 meters 18.25 feet
Length (with booster): 6.25 meters 20.5 feet
Diameter: 53.3 centimeters 21 inches
Wingspan: 2.67 meters 8,75 feet
Weight
Weight (without booster): 1 315 kilograms 2 900 pounds
Weight (with booster): 1 588 kilograms 3 500 pounds
Warhead weight: 340 kilograms 750 pounds
Features
Speed: ~880 kilometers per hour ~550 miles per hour
Range: 870 nautical miles (1 610 kilometers) (1 000 miles)
Engine thrust: 3.1 kilonewtons 700 pounds
Booster thrust: 26.7 kilonewtons (for 12 seconds) 6 000 pounds (for 12 seconds)
Miscellaneous
Guidance system: INS, TERCOM, DSMAC, and GPS
Propulsion: Williams F107-WR-402 turbofan engine
Booster: Atlantic Research MK 106 solid-propellant rocket
Warhead: WDU-36/B blast-fragmentation warhead

Timeline

January 1991 - First launch
May 1993 - Initial Operational Capability

Block IV TLAM-E

The R/UGM-109E is called Tactical Tomahawk, it is aimed to cost significantly less (about one half) per production round than an up-to-date TLAM-C/D. Therefore a cheaper engine is used and the structure is lighter. The originally planned engine was the TBIP's J402-CA-401 turbojet, but this was changed during development to a Williams F415-WR-400/402 turbofan, causing a significant delay in the time schedule. Because of the lighter structure (which includes reducing the number of tailfins from four to three), the UGM-109E is unsuitable for launch from torpedo tubes, but can still be used from SSNs equipped with vertical launch systems. The RGM/UGM-109E also features a number of significant operational improvements. The missile can be reprogrammed in flight via an UHF satellite link to divert to any one of 15 pre-programmed alternate targets or to an arbitrary location defined by GPS coordinates. It can also loiter over the target area for some time while transmitting imagery from its on-board TV camera via the satellite link. The image can be used to assess battle damage and/or to retarget the missile.

Timeline

January 1994 - Block IV upgrade, also known as TBIP (Tomahawk Baseline Improvement Program) started by Hughes (now Raytheon)
May 1996 - Block IV cancelled
August 2002 - First flight of a Tactical Tomahawk test vehicle
October 2002 - First LRIP (Low-Rate Initial Production) contract awarded to Raytheon
November 2002 - First underwater launch
May 2004 - Initial Operational Capability
August 2004 - Full-scale production contract awarded to Raytheon